Tema broja

SRBIJA I MIGRANTSKA KRIZA

IZBEGLIČKO-MIGRANTSKA KRIZA: UZROK, POSLEDICE I SMISAO

Sažetak

Tekst o migrantskoj krizi polazi od pretpostavke da se radi o spontano organizovanom procesu koji ima niz okidača (ili uzroka) i višestruke i dalekosežne posledice na zemlje porekla a ponajviše i na zemlje prijema. On ga karakteriše kao seobu naroda, a teorijski kao strateški organizovane migracije u kojima se mešaju prinudni i ekonomsko-podsticajni elementi. Uzroci su ekonomske i političke prirode, ali i ratovi i krize otvorene ‘Arapskim prolećem’ tj. zimom. Autor prvo daje kratak osvrt na istorijat velikih seoba, zatim odgovara na nekoliko pitanja: Da li se radi o spontanom ili organizovanom procesu? Da li su u pitanju izbeglice ili migranti? Kakve su posledice i koji je smisao celokupne pojave? Janković navodi da su planovi za veliko migriranje dugoročno i postavljani još pre Drugog svteskog rata, kao i da su razvijani i podsticani od strane zapadne finansijsko-političko-intelektualne oligarhije i u novije vreme. Vršeći poređenje niza izbegličkih kriza: palestinske, kongoanske i druge, on ukazuje da izbeglice vazda idu u okolne zemlje, dok migranti odlaze dalje u potrazi za boljim životom. U tekstu se posebno obrađuju višestruke posledice po EU, što se naslanja na ranije autorove tekstove posvećene politici EU prema južnom i istočnom Sredozemlju te kvalitetu i dometima EU politika u tom delu sveta. Autor zaključuje da je velika migranstka kriza deo šireg procesa razbijanja homogenosti u zapadnыm društvima i državama kao pledojaea za isti proces u ostatku sveta. Nasuprot tome, u evropskim društvima jačaju politički pokreti koji traže povratak suverenosti.

Ključne reči:

Reference

    1. A EUROPEAN AGENDA ON MIGRATION, Brussels, 13.5.2015 COM(2015) 240 final.
    2. Aggiornamenti crisi immigrazione in Europa, ISMU, http:// www.ismu.org/2016/05/aggiornamenti-emergenza-immigrazione-europa/, приступ: 16/05/2016.
    3. EUNAVFOR MED Operation SOPHIA, Six Monthly Re­port, EEAS(2016) 1260 Brussels, 28 January 2016 (OR. en) 5653/16 RESTREINT UE/EU RESTRICTED; Wikileaks release: February, 17th 2016.
    4. European Commission Fact Sheet, EU-Turkey Agree­ment: Questions and Answers, Brussels, 19 March 2016, Интернет, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-16-963_en.htm, приступ: 202/05/2016.
    5. European Commission Press release, Relocation and Reset­tlement: EU Member States must act to sustain current management of flows, Brussels, 18 May 2016, Интернет, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-1763_ en.htm, приступ: 20/05/2016.
    6. OECD Data, Migration, https://data.oecd.org/migration/ foreign-born-population.htm, приступ: 20/11/2015.
    7. Palestine in Figures 2014 Palestinian Central Bureau of Sta­tistics, 2015.
    8. Regional Humanitarian Situation Report#2, REFUGEE AND MIGRANT CRISIS IN EUROPE 27 OCTOBER 2015, Интернет, http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/sitrep2. pdf, приступ: 27/10/2015.
    9. Replacement Migration: Is It A Solution To Declining And Ageing Population?, United Nations Population Divi­sion, 17 March 2000, Интернет, http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/ migration/migration. htm, приступ: 28/10/2015.
    10. Third report on relocation and resettlement, Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The European Council And The Council Brussels, 18.5.2016 COM(2016) 360 final;
    11. Foreign Affairs Council, 18-19/04/2016,            http://consilium. europa. eu/en/meetings/fac /2016/04/18 -19/?utm_source=dsms-auto&utm_ medium = email&utm_campaign= Foreign+Affairs+Council%2c+18-19%2f04%2f2016++Main+results++Defence+items, приступ: 19/05/2016.
    12. Council Decision establishing provisional measures in the area of international protection for the benefit of Italy and Greece, Council of the European Union, Brussels, 22 September 2015 (OR. en) 12098/15 ASIM 87.
    13. 14th Report of Session 2015-16 published 13 May 2016 HL Paper 144, Интернет, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201516/ldselect/ldeucom/144/ htm#_idTextAnchor016, приступ: 16/05/2016.
    14. Giulia Bettin, Eralba Cela, “Levoluzione storica dei flussi migratori in Europa e in Italia”, Università Iuav di Vene­zia
    15. “Violenze di Capodanno, Imam di Colonia: «Donne violentate perché mezze nude e profumate»”, Il Messaggero 21 Gennaio 2016 Интернет, http://www.ilmessaggero. it/primopiano/esteri/violenze_di_capodanno_ imam_di_colonia_colpa_delle_donne_perch_c_messo_profumo-1497887.html, приступ: 22/01/2016.
    16. “German Feminists: Forget Rapist Migrants, They’re Al­ready Marginalised”, Breitbart 7 Jan 2016, Интернет, http://www.breitbart.com/, приступ: 09/01/2016.
    17. “Germania: oltre 1 milione di profughi arrivati nel 2015”, il 40% dalla Siria, Il Sole 24 ore 6 gennaio 2016.
    18. Mollie Gerver, “The EU’s Operation Sophia has failed to make conditions safer for refugees”, LSE, Интернет, http://bit.ly/1VatSHC, приступ: 18/05/2016;
    19. Kelly Graham, “Strategic engineered migration”, Civil Wars, Vol .10, No.1 (March 2008), pp.6-21;
    20. Peter Drucker, Postkapitalističko društvo, Beograd 1995, str. 220;
    21. Миша Ђурковић, Илузија Европске уније, Catena Mundi – Институт за европске студије, Београд 2015, стр. 278;
    22. “Erdogan says Turkey won’t revise terror law for visa deal”, 2016-05-06, Интернет, http://www.france24.com/ en/20160506-erdogan-says-turkey-wont-revise-terrorlaw-visa-deal, приступ: 18/04/2016;
    23. “EU should ‘undermine national homogeneity’ says UN migration chief”, BBC 21 June 2012, Интернет, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-18519395, приступ: 16/05/2016;
    24. “EU ‘Frontex Plus’ agency to replace Italy migrant sea res­cue”, Euronews Интернет, http://www.euronews.com/2014/08/27/eu-frontex-plus-agency-to-replaceitaly-migrant-sea-rescue/, приступ: 01/09/2014;
    25. Slobodan Janković, „Libijska kriza i njene posledice”, Međunarodna politika, LXII, br. 1142, april-jun 2011, IMPP, Beograd 2011, стр. 30-51;
    26. Слободан Јанковић, „Промене на Блиском истоку и у Северној Африци — Ка постсувереном светском поретку”, изворни научни рад, Национални интерес бр. 2/2011, вол. 11, стр. 261-315;
    27. Слободан Јанковић, „Политика ЕУ према источном и јужом Медитерану”, Национални интерес, бр. 3/2014, год. X, вол. 21, стр. 71-91;
    28. „Др Слободан Јанковић: Сорош, Хилари и ЕУ пудлице”, Вечерње новости, јануар 2016;
    29. Slobodan Janković, “Transformation of the Middle East after the Arab Spring”, in: (Ed) Taro Tsukimura, Ivona Lađevac, Major International Issues in the 21st Century from a Perspective of Japan and Europe, Global Resource Management Program, Doshisha University, Japan In­stitute of International Politics and Economics, Bel­grade, 2015, (178), pp. 127-145;
    30. Slobodan Janković, Aleksandar Gajić, “EU Security Policy in North Africa and in the Middle East”, Serbian Politi­cal Thought, 1/2015, Year VII, Vol. 11, pp. 39-69;
    31. Luciano Canfora, Gustavo Zagrebelsky, La maschera democratica dell’oligarchia: un dialogo, (a cura di Geminello Preterossi), Editori Laterza, Roma 2014, pp. 135.
    32. D. A. Coleman, “Replacement migration, or why everyone is going to have to live in Korea: a fable for our times from the United Nations”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of the Royal Society, B (2002) 357, pp. 583-598;
    33. Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, Praktischer Idealismus, Интернет, https://ia802608.us.archive.org/10/items/ PraktischerIdealismus1925 /PraktischerIdealismus.pdf, приступ: 08/09/2015;
    34. Viktor Orban, „Wer überrannt wird, kann niemanden auf­nehmen“, FAZ 02.09.2015, http://www.faz.net/aktuell/ p olitik/fluechtlingskrise/viktororban -wer-ueberrannt wird-kann-niemanden-aufnehmen-13782061.html, приступ: 10/10/2015;
    35. Katiana Orluc, “A Wilhelmine Legacy? CoudenhoveKalergi’s Pan-Europe and the Crisis of European Mo­dernity, 1922-1932”, in Hartmut Pogge Von Strandmann (ed.), Wilhelminism and Its Legacies: German Moder­nities, Imperialism, and the Meanings of Reform, 1890­1930, Berghahn Books, 2003;
    36. Angeliki Papamiltiadou, “Χοντρό παιχνίδι στην πλάτη της Ελλάδας” Euro2day.gr 08 February 2016, http:// www.euro2day. gr/news/economy/article/1397081/ hontro-paihnidi-sth-plath-ths-elladas.html, приступ: 09/02/2016;
    37. Vladimiro Polchi, “Immigrati, cè un popolo di invisibili in Italia e sono più di 400 mila”, La Repubblica 02 Dicembre 2015, Интернет, http://www.repubblica.it/solidarieta/immigrazione /2015/12/02/news/rapporto_ismu128656311/, приступ: 18/12/2015;
    38. “Route of Migrants Into Europe Shifts Toward Bal­kans”, July 18, 2015, Интернет, http://www.nytimes. com/2015/07/19/world/europe/route-of-migrants-into-europe-shifts-toward-balkans.html?_r=0, приступ: 04/05/2016;
    39. James Slack, “Migrants from outside the EU have tak­en £120billion more from the state than they paid in taxes over 17 years, Mail Online, 5 November 2014, Интернет, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2821151/Non-EU-migrants-State-costing-British-finances-120billion-1995.html#ixzz49I58AVxx, приступ: 16/05/2016;
    40. Nikola Stojanović, „Kriza u mediteranskom susedstvu: test za migracionu politiku Evropske unije”, Međunarodna politika, LXVII, br. 4 Beograd 2015, str. 328-348;
    41. James P. Tucker Jr, “Trilateral Commission: Global Elite Gather in C” Global Research, May 06, 2008, Интернет, http://www.globalresearch.ca/trilateral-commission-global-elite-gather-in-d-c/8914, приступ: 20/05/2016;
    42. UNHCR Data Mediterranean refugees.
    43. Dimiter Philipov, Julia Schuster, “Effect of Migration on Population Size and Age Composition in Europe” Euro­pean Demographic Research Papers 2, Vienna Institute of Demography of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Интернет, http://www.oeaw.ac.at/vid/download/pdf, приступ: 10/05/2016;
    44. “62 People Own Same Wealth as Half the World”, OXFAM January 18, 2016, Интернет, http://www.oxfamamerica.org/press/62-people-own-same-wealth-as-half-theworld/, приступ: 20/02/2016
PERIODIKA Nаcionalni interes 1/2016 УДК 325.2(55/56)(61) (4)“2014/2016“ 69-102
ç