Institute for Political Studies
Insititute for Balkan Studies of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences
History Department of the Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade University
History Department of the Faculty of Philosophy, Belgrade University
Aleksandra Kolaković, PhD, is the Research Associate of the Institute for Political Studies. Her research focus is the history of ideas, intellectual history and the cultrue of remembrance. Author of the book: “U službi otadžbine: saradnja francuskih i srpskih intelektualaca 1894 - 1914 (At the Service of Fatherland: Cooperation of French and Serbian Intellectuals 1894 – 1914) (Institute for Political Studies, 2017) and a range of academic papers published in Serbia and abroad (Sapienza - Universita di Roma; Cambridge Scholars Publishing; Western University of Arad). Visiting researcher at L'Université Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne, Paris (2010) and Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research, Braunschweig, Germany (2016). Author and trainer, seminar for professional development of history teachers “Inovacije u nastavi istorije” (Innovations in history teaching) (2014, 2015), as well as history textbook and manual for second and third grade of high school (2014, 2015, 2016). Member of the British Association for Slavonic and East European Studies.
THE SALONICA FRONT AND THE SERBS: BETWEEN ABANDONATION AND THE PLACE OF NATIONAL REMEMBRANCE
In Serbia, the Great War (1914–1918) and the Salonica Front are typically associated with a powerful image in collective memory. Therefore, it is very important to examine the veracity and origin of mental images, which may be formed under the influence of historians, publications, history textbooks, state policy, politicians, artists, newspapers and social networks. This paper aims to explore the ways the war is remembered in Serbia and and its self-perception through public commemoration. The aim is to throw light on the role and importance of historical knowledge, as well as, the social role of marking the 100th anniversary of the Great War and particularly the Salonica Front. The final aim is to devise recommendations on how to create objective representations of the past and to shape their influence on the society we are living. Underdeveloped cultural policy and the Yugoslav idea influenced on the blurred perceptions of events from 1914 to 1918. Salonica’s warriors have been already forgotten in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and later the memories of the two world wars were tied up in socialist Yugoslavia. Serbian Diaspora cherished the memory of the Salonica front and the other events of the Great War. The main features of the place of the Salonica front in the Serbian national memory were being disremembered and neglection the culture of remembrance, as well as identity. The centenary stressed the importance of continuous care about the culture of remembrance as an important factor in creating identity and consciousness about the present. In the case of the Great War, we recognize that the historical facts interpreted in new ways. Therefore, the role of professionals is crucial in creation of cultural policies and the raising path of the culture of remembrance in Serbian society. The important role of media and the Internet in implementation of the cultural policies contributed that the role of individuals becomes an essential element in the formation of the memories on the Salonica front. Remembering is also important in bilateral and multilateral relations between states. Culture of remembrance on the events remembered as a period of heroism, the greatest suffering and alliances in the Great War removes the stereotypical images of the Serbs, who were dominant from the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia, and also remembering on Salonica front could be an indirect factor in the repositioning of Serbia in international relations.
Ljiljana Rogač Mijatović, Cultural Diplomacy and Identity of Serbia, Belgrade: Faculty of Dramatic Arts, Institute for Theatre, Film, Radio and Television, Clio, 2014.
Book review: Ljiljana Rogač Mijatović, Cultural Diplomacy and Identity of Serbia, Belgrade: Faculty of Dramatic Arts, Institute for Theatre, Film, Radio and Television, Clio, 2014, p. 211.
– Road to Great War – Serbian Intellectuals and Austro-Hungarian Policy in the Balkans (1894–1914)
The generation of Serbian Intellectuals who were active in the political and public life of Serbia at the turn of 19th and 20th century were considering problems of maintaining the attained independence of Serbia, a search for reliable support in foreign policy, integration of the nation and further economic, social, and cultural development. In the Europe characterized with complex relationships between the great powers, ambitious imperialist plans, instability and conflicts which were leading to the Great War (1914–1918), the Serbian intelligentsia, prevailingly educated in European university centers, was striving to find ways of accomplishing the idea of liberation and unification. The change of orientation in Serbian foreign policy, which began in the last decade of 19th century and was definitely confirmed with the raise of the Karadjordjević Dynasty to the Serbian throne (1903), was a manifestation of the need of Serbian politicians and intellectuals to facilitate liberation from economic dependence, development of the state and the national idea, by edging away from the reliance on Austria-Hungary. From the Congress of Berlin (1878), via the Customs War (1906–1911), the Annexation Crisis (1908) and the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), the interest of Serbian intellectuals in the policy of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans was growing and intermingling with issues of the overall further development of Serbia. The aim of this paper is to shed a light onto the origins and development of the interest and the thinking of Serbian intellectuals regarding the policy and interests of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans in the period which immediately preceded World War I. The attitudes and thoughts of Serbian intellectuals which were published in periodicals (the Serbian Literary Gazette /Srpski književni glasnik/ and the Work /Delo/), press, brochures and books, are viewed in the context of Austro-Hungarian imperial thrust into the Balkans, which started with the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and was definitely confirmed with the act of annexation and war plans. The efforts of Austria-Hungary to control the entire Balkans and occupy its central areas have also been studied in light of the confrontation between the two blocs of European powers, perception of the place of the Serbs and Serbia in the complicated international relations of the time, as well as in light of development of the Yugoslav idea, which was present among Serbian intellectuals prior to World War I.
Srbija u Velikom ratu 1914–1918 [Serbia in the Great War 1914– 1918], Belgrade, Srpska književna zadruga, Beogradski forum za svet ravnopravnih, special editions, Belgrade 2014, 300 p.
Book review: М. Radojević, Lj. Dimić, Srbija u Velikom ratu 1914–1918 [Serbia in the Great War 1914– 1918], Belgrade, Srpska književna zadruga, Beogradski forum za svet ravnopravnih, special editions, Belgrade 2014, 300 p.