Aleksandar V. Gajić

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Faculty of Law, University of Belgrade.


After twenty long and frustrating years, America has finally withdrawn completely from Afghanistan. This paper gives an overview of American actions in Afghanistan, starting with the George W. Bush administration and the invasion of American troops, assassination of Osama bin Laden and suppression of Al-Qaeda’s activities, through the Obama administration, during which the ISAF mission ended and throughout which the withdrawal of American troops was announced. After that, an overview of the activities during the mandate of Donald Trump is given, during which definite conditions for the withdrawal of troops were created, by signing the agreement in Doha between the United States of America and the Taliban, which was meant to bring the peace to the Afghanistan. At the end of the paper, an overview of the activities and the situation on the ground during the administration of Joe Biden is given, during which the complete withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan was finally completed, which the Taliban used it to reoccupy the country and declare the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.


Standards of Appellate Review in the International Administration of Criminal Justice

Proceedings before contemporary international courts and tribunals are truly international, without counterpart in national legal systems, and that is also a characteristic of the proceedings on appeal. The author discusses standards of appellate review, namely standards of review applied by appeals chambers of various international courts and tribunals (the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals and International Criminal Court). The issues discussed in this article are whether standards of appellate review applied by international courts and tribunals safeguards the appellant’s right to a fair trial and whether they are appropriate for international criminal proceedings.