Main topic

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: SECURITY CHALLENGES

POSTCOLONIAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT AS THE BASIS OF CONFLICT IN NIGERIA

Abstract

Nigeria is a very complex society with over 300 different ethnic groups, about 500 different languages ​​and extremely fast population growth with over 210 million inhabitants in 2021. The merging of these different groups and identities into one common entity has been a serious problem since the creation of the modern state in 1914., which colonial rulers have largely solved by force. When we analyze and observe Nigeria and its postcolonial period, we can say that it is at least turbulent and debatable, and at the same time imbued with problems of ethnic minorities, unequal income distribution formulas, asymmetric state structures, lack of real federalism, inability to publish accurate census figures, ethno-religious crises and so on. What is worrying is that these challenges are re-emerging in the daily lives of Nigerians as a threat to Nigeria’s existence. All this points to the visible complexities and contradictions of postcolonial Nigeria in five decades of political independence and almost two decades of democracy. What began with the annexation of Lagos and later the destruction of various kingdoms, ended with the creation of a new entity that included more than two hundred groups of people of different histories, cultures and orientations who are almost in constant conflict. The aim of this paper will be a detailed analysis of the postcolonial system of government and its impact on the emergence and escalation of conflicts in Nigeria.

keywords :

References

    • Terzić, Predrag, i Tijana Perić Diligenski. 2017. „Modernizacija: određenje pojma i pojavni oblici.ˮ Kultura polisa 33: 417‒430.
    • Adebanwi, Waleand, Ebenezer Obadare. 2010. “Introducing Nigeria at fifty: The nation in narration.ˮ Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol: 28, Issue: 4, page 379‒405.
    • Awolowo, Obafemi. 1947. “Path to Nigerian Freedom.ˮ London: Faber & Faber.
    • Bello, Ahmadu. 1962. “My life.ˮ London: Cambridge University Press.
    • Bhabha, Homi. 1994. “The Location of Culture.ˮ Abingdon: Routledge Classics Series.
    • CIA. “Nigeria.ˮ Poslednji pristup 23. avgust 2021. https://www.cia.gov/the-world.
    • Collins, Harper. 1979. “Collins English Dictionary.ˮ Glasgow: Harper Collins.
    • Eide, Elisabeth. 2016. “Strategic Essentialism.ˮ New Jersey: The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies.
    • Eteng, Inya.2004. “Ethnicity, ethno-class relations and crisis of Nigeria’s enduring‘national question’ and political instability.ˮ Nigeria and Globalization: Discourses on Identity Politics and Social Conflict.
    • Falola, Toyin. 1998. “Violence in Nigeria: The crises of religious politics and secular ideologies.ˮ Rochester: University of Rochester Press.
    • Falola, Toyin. 2001. “Violence in Nigeria: The Crises of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies.ˮ Canadian Journal of African Studies 35  (3) 601‒603.
    • Falola, Toyin and, Matthew Heaton. 2008. “A History of Nigeria.ˮ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Gabbidon, Shaun. 2010. “Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice: An International Dilemma.ˮ Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
    • Gilmartin, Mary. 2009. “Key Concepts in Political Geography: Colonialism/Imperialism.ˮ California: Sage Publications.
    • Gregory, Derek. 2004. “The Colonial Present: Afghanistan. Palestine. Iraq.ˮ New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Hodgkin, Thomas. “Nigerian Perspectives: An Historical Anthology.ˮ London: Oxford University Press.
    • Independent National Electoral Commission. “Registered Political Parties.ˮ. Poslednji pristup 24. avgust 2021. https://www.inecnigeria.org/.
    • Jovanović, Nataša. 2017. “Rubikova kocka postkolonijalizma: teorijski sinkretizam i novi izazovi u postkolonijalnim studijama.ˮ Beograd: Medunarodni Problemi.
    • Kifordu, Henry. 2011. “Political Elite Composition and Democracy in Nigeria.ˮ The Open Area Studies Journal, 4, 16‒31.
    • Kinnan, Christopher, Gordon Daniel, De Long Mark, Jaquish Douglas, and Robert Mc Allum. 2011. “Failed State 2030 Nigeria – Case Study.ˮ Ait University.
    • Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. “Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism.ˮ Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    • Mustapha, Raufu. 2006. “Ethnic structure, inequality and governance of the public sector in Nigeria.ˮ Democracy, Governance and Human Rights 24, 15‒43.
    • Nolutshungu, Sam. 1990. “Fragments of a democracy: Reflections on class and politics in Nigeria.” Third World Quarterly 12 (1): 86‒115.
    • Peel, Michael. 2010. “A swamp full of dollars: Pipelines and paramilitaries at Nigeria’s oil frontier.ˮ Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
    • Peter, Lewis. 2007. “Identity, Institutions and Democracy in Nigeria.ˮ Cape Town: Afrobarometer.
    • Said, Edward. 1985. “Orientalism Reconsidered.ˮ Cultural Critique 1: 89‒107.
    • Tamuno, Tekena. 1970. “Separatist Agitations in Nigeria since 1914.ˮ The Journal of Modern African Studies 8(4): 563‒584.
    • Webster, Merriam. 1996. “Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language.ˮ Bexley: Gramercy.
    • Young, Robert. 2009. “What is the Postcolonial?” Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, University of Calgary.
    • Young, Robert. 2015. “Empire, Colony, Postcolony.ˮ Chicester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Serbian Political Thought 3/2021 3/2021 УДК 325.3:32(669.1)“1960/2021“ 57-78
ç