Zoran Ž. Krstić

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Fakultet političkih nauka, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

PERIODIKA

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEMOCRATISATION PROCESS IN MEXICO AND POLAND

The object analysis of this paper is comparison of democratisation process that occurred in two countries Mexico and Poland. Beside common political past and authoritarian nature-character of previous regime, those countries are different in almost every aspect: geograp­hical position, history, culture and politics. The aim of this paper it to discover the similarities and differences of democratisation process as well as to find to which degree democratisation is a universal process. During the twenty century many countries with previously nondemoc­ratic regimes transformed itself into democracies. That process simul­taneously occurred on distant continents and concerned countries with totally different political and economical regimes. The main reason of studying transition is to uncover the conditions and paths that had led to political democracy. The main purpose of the paper it to analyse and compare democratisation process in Mexico and Poland in the context of wider democratisation theories. The period of reforms between the authoritarian regime and fully democratic state is called in literature de­mocratisation or transformation and should be analysed on two levels. The first one, the institutional, concerns changes in political and eco­nomical system. The second one, the societal, relates to modifications inside society, the impact of institutional changes on political culture of both, ruling elite and opposition.

PERIODIKA

PERSONALIZACIJA VLASTI, POPULIZAM I KAUDILJIZAM U LATINSKOJ AMERICI

Predmet analize u ovom radu jeste proučavanje fenomena personalizacije i „kaudiljizacije“ politike, vlasti i demokratije u državama Latinske Amerike. U ovom regionu postoji duga i duboka tradicija personalističkog, populističkog i autokratskog političkog vođstva. Osnovna tema ovog istraživanja jeste proučavanje personalističko-autokratske i populističke paradigme koja dominira u gotovo svim segmentima latinoameričkog društva. Namera autora je da pojasni sve relevantne činioce, koji dovode do prevelikog uticaja pojedinaca na celokupnu političku scenu država regiona i praktično do nemogućnosti njegovog iskorenjivanja. U spektar činilaca koji determinišu model latinoameričkog personalizma spadaju od katoličke crkve, vojske, bezbednosnih službi, preko multirasnog i multietničkog porekla stanovništva, do postojećeg socijalnog statusa i narko kartela. Predmet proučavanja u ovom radu bazira se na pretpostavci o kontinuitetu jakih, harizmatičnih i autoritarnih lidera u političkim sistemima skoro svih država Latinske Amerike. Povod za pisanje ovog rada nalazi se u autoritarnoj tradiciji ovakve političke konstrukcije u gotovo svim državama kontinenta i otpornosti personalističko-klijentelističkog sistema vladavine u odnosu na većinu egzogenih i endogenih faktora.

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