Tema broja

IZAZOVI EVROPSKIH INTEGRACIJA

GRAĐANI I PARTIJE U IZBORNIM PROCESIMA U EVROPSKOJ UNIJI: PRINCIPALI BEZ UTICAJA, AGENTI BEZ ODGOVORNOSTI?

Sažetak

Predmet rada je razmatranje uloge građana i partija u izbornim procesima u Evropskoj uniji iz perspektive principal-agent teorije. Osnovna teza ovog rada je da je uticaj građana do te mere ograničen da se može slobodno reći da principal gotovo da ne kontroliše agenta. Prvi razlog leži u tome da partije nisu proces evropske integracije učinile značajnim faktorom političke utakmice, što onemogućava efektivno izražavanje volje građana. Drugi razlog leži u fenomenu tzv. izbora ‘drugog reda’ za Evropski parlament što pasivizuje građane. Sve ovo je učinilo da partije, kao agenti, budu nedovoljno odgovorne građanima za delovanje u procesu evropskih integracije, ali finansijska kriza i kriza evrozone dovode do buđenja ‘uspavanog džina’.

Ključne reči:

Reference

    1. Bellamy, Richard, and Kroger, Sandra, “Europe Hits Home – the Domestic deficits of Representative Democracy in EU Affairs”, UCL European Institute Working Paper No. 2/2011
    2. Cramme, Olaf, “The changing space for EU politics: Democracy and ideology in times of crisis”, Policy Network Paper, London, October 2011.
    3. Eijk, Cees van der, Franklin, Mark, „The Sleeping Giant: Potential for Contestation on European matters at National Elections in Europe“, Paper delivered at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA, September 2001., http://shakti.trincoll.edu/~mfrankli/vdEijk%26Franklin.pdf.
    4. European Parliament, Review: European and National Elections Figured Out, 2014 European elections, Special edition – November 2014.
    5. Foss, Nicolai, Lando, Henrik, Thomsen, Steen, „The Theory of the Firm“, u: Boudewijn Bouckaert, Gerrit De Geest (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Law and Economics, Edward Elgar Pub, 2000.
    6. Franklin, Mark, Hobolt, Sara Binzer, “The Legacy of Lethargy: How Elections to the European Parliament Depress Turnout”, Electoral Studies, 2011, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp. 67–76.
    7. Franklin, Mark, „Why vote at an election with no apparent purpose? Voter turnout at elections to the European Parliament“, Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies, European Policy Analysis, 2014:4.
    8. Грк, Снежана, „Свет – димензије кризе и спашавање европског пројекта“, Српска политичка мисао, број 3/2012., год. 19. вол. 37, стр. 41-60.
    9. Хикс, Сајмон, Политички систем Европске уније, Београд, Службени гласник, 2007.
    10. Hix, Simon, Marsh, Michael, „Second-order effects plus pan-European political swings: An analysis of European Parliament elections across time“, Electoral Studies 30 (2011) 4–15.
    11. Hix, Simon, Noury, Abdul, Roland, Gerard, „Voting patterns and alliance formation in the European Parliament“, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2009, 364, 821–831.
    12. Hix, Simon, „Parliamentary Behavior with Two Principals: Preferences, Parties, and Voting in the European Parliament“, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Jul., 2002), pp. 688-698.
    13. Hix, Simon, Marsh, Michael, „Punishment or Protest? Understanding European Parliament Elections“, The Journal of Politics, Vol. 69, No. 2, May 2007, pp. 495–510.
    14. Hix, Simon, „A Supranational Party System and the Legitimacy of the European Union“, The International Spectator 4/2002, 49-60., str. 51-59.
    15. Hix, Simon, Noury, Abdul, Roland, Gerard, „Power to the Parties: Cohesion and Competition in the European Parliament, 1979–2001“, British Journal of Political Science, 35 (2), 2005, pp. 209-234.
    16. Hooghe, Liesbet, Marks, Gary, Wilson, Carole J., “Does Left/Right Structure Party Positions on European Integration?”, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 35 No. 8, October 2002, pp. 965-989.
    17. Јовановић, Милан, „Парламентарни избори у Србији 2012. године – резултати и политичке последице“, Српска политичка мисао, број 4/2012, год. 19. вол. 38, стр. 11-32.
    18. Kovačević, Maja, „Diferencirana integracija i kriza Ekonomske i monetarne unije: Evropa (koliko?) koncentričnih krugova“, u: Slobodan Samardžić, Ivana Radić Milosavljević (Ur.) Kriza Evropske unije, Beograd, Službeni glasnik, 2013, str. 147-159.
    19. Ladrech, Robert, „National Political Parties and European Governance: The Consequences of ‘Missing in Action’“, West European Politics, Vol. 30, No. 5, 945 – 960, November 2007.
    20. Laffan, Brigid, „Testing Times: The Growing Primacy of Responsibility in the Euro Area“, West European Politics, 2014, Vol. 37, No. 2, 270–287.
    21. Lindberg, Bjorn, Rasmussen, Anne, Warntjen, Andreas, „Party politics as usual? The role of political parties in EU legislative decision-making“, Journal of European Public Policy 15:8 December 2008: 1107–1126.
    22. Lord, Christopher, „What Role for Parties in EU Politics?“, European Integration, 2002, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 39-52.
    23. Mair, Peter, Thomassen, Jacques, „Political representation and government in the European Union“, Journal of European Public Policy 17:1 January 2010: 20–35
    24. Mair, Peter, „Popular Democracy and the European Union Polity“, European Governance Papers (EUROGOV) C-05-03, 2005, http://www.connex-network.org/eurogov/pdf/egp-connex-C-05-03.pdf.
    25. Marks, Gary, Wilson, Carole, Ray, Leonard, „National Political Parties and European Integration“, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 46, No 3, July 2002, 585-594.
    26. Marks, Gary, Wilson, Carole, „The Past in the Present: A Cleavage Theory of Party Response to European Integration“, British Journal of Political Science, 30, 2000, 433–459.
    27. Marsh, Michael, Mikhaylov, Slava, “European Parliament elections and EU governance”, Living Reviews in European Governance, Vol. 5, 2010, No. 4.
    28. Moravcsik, Andrew, “Why the European Union Strengthens the State: Domestic Politics and International Cooperation”, Cambridge Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series 52, 1994.
    29. Muller, Wolfgang, „Political parties in parliamentary democracies: Making delegation and accountability work“, European Journal of Political Research 37: 309–333, 2000.
    30. Reif, Karlheinz, Schmitt, Hermann, „Nine Second-Order National Elections – A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of European Elections Results“, European Journal of Political Research, 8, 1980, 3-44.
    31. Shackleton, Michael, u: Sandra Kröger (Ed.), “Interdisciplinary views on political representation in the EU”, UCL European Institute Working Paper No. 4/2012.
    32. Scully, Roger, “National Parties and European Parliamentarians: Developing and Testing an Institutionalist Theory”, European Parliament Research Group (EPRG), EPRG Working Paper No 6, 2001.
    33. Schmitt, Hermann, Thomassen, Jacques, “Dynamic Representation: The Case of European Integration”, European Union Politics, 2000, 1(3): 318–39.
    34. Statham, Paul, Trenz, Hans-Jörg, “The Politicization of the European Union: From Constitutional Dreams to Euro-Zone crisis Nightmares”, ARENA Centre for European Studies, University of Oslo, 2011.
    35. Thiem, Janina, „A supranational elite (in the making)? Agency relations in the European Parliament and the role of national parties“, Paper prepared for the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Helsinki, May 7-12, 2007.
    36. Thiem, Janina, „Explaining Roll Call Vote Request in the European Parliament“, Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung Working Papers, Nr. 90, 2006.
    37. Thomassen, Jacques „Representation From Above and a Revolt From Below“, in: Dahlberg, Stefan, Oscarsson, Henrik, Wängnerud, Lena (Eds.), Stepping Stones: Research on Political Representation, Voting Behavior and Quality of Government, University of Gothenburg, 2013.
    38. Vries de, Catherine, „Sleeping Giant: Fact or Fairytale?“, European Union Politics 8, 3, 2007, 363-385.
    39. Weber, Till, “Campaign Effects and Second-Order Cycles: A Top-Down Approach to European Parliament Elections”, European Union Politics 2007, Vol. 8 (4), 510-511.
PERIODIKA Srpska politička misao 1/2015 УДК 324:342.53(4-672EU) 163-178
ç