Geopolitical and Geoeconomical Causes of the First World War
Although the whole century has gone since the First World War, the immediate cause and reasons for its beginning has been again in the centre, not so much of scientific objective research, but in the centre of contemporary, political changeable relativized research of those who were challengers and those who were induced. In the order of that aim are the efforts to rename the Sarajevo assassination, which is undoubtedly determined as the direct cause of the War, into its reason, which essence is much more complex. The real reason for the beginning of the First World War should be looked for in the confrontation of the great European and world powers – the process which had lasted at least half century before the War actually began. Basically there is an expansionism of two complementary Central European countries: the Austro Hungarian Empire and Germany. The Austro Hungarian Empire, in which the Slavs were majority, had been trying to strengthen the ethnical-political cohesion within its boundaries, while the foreign political aim was to penetrate to the Aegean port Salonika at the eastern Mediterranean. Serbia had been perceived as “disruptive factor”, especially after the expansion achieved in the Balkan’s wars. Germany, since it had united only in the second half of the XIX century, has been unsatisfied with the established colonial division of the world. It couldn’t be a concurrent to France, Great Britain and Russia such territorially squeezed in the Central Europe. Because of that, Germany had decided to take “Drang nach Osten” as its geopolitical and geoeconomical orientation (“The Bagdad Idea”). The realization of this plan would represent the continental competition to the Great Britain marine “The Big Imperial Way” and the cutting the Britain imperia into two parts. In that context, Serbia was identified as “The Gatekeeper of the Orient” to the British, and to the Germans was the only obstacle on its “strategic diagonal” from the North Sea to the Persian Gulf. Preparing for the War, the great powers, in accordance with their own geopolitical and geoeconomical interests, included small countries in their military alliances, which they formed many years before the 1914.
- Bžežinski, Z. (2001) Velika šahovska tabla. Podgorica, Banja Luka: CID, Romanov.
- Cvijić, J. (1987) “Politički značaj Novopazarskog Sandžaka”, in Lukić (ed.) Govori i članci. Beograd: SANU, NIRO “Književne novine”, Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva.
- Dugin, A.(2004) Osnovi geopolitike, knjiga 1. Zrenjanin:
- Dugin, A. (2004) Osnovi geopolitike, knjiga 2. Zrenjanin: Ekopres.
- Gaćinović, R. (2014) Mlada Bosna. Beograd: Medija centar “Odbrana”.
- Huntington, S. P. (1996) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
- Kjelen, R. (1923) Država kao životni oblik. Beograd-Sarajevo: Izdanje I. Đ. Đurđevića.
- Krivokapić, B. (2010) Enciklopedijski rečnik međunarodnog prava i međunarodnih odnosa. Beograd: Službeni glasnik.
- Mackinder, H. J. (1904) “The Geographical Pivot of History”. Geographical Journal, 23(1904): 427-437.
- Mackinder, H. J. (1919) Democratic Ideals and Reality – A Study in the Politics of Reconstruction. London: Constable and Company Ltd.
- Naumann, (1915) Mitteleuropa. Berlin: Reimer.
- Orel, K. (2012) Srednja Evropa – od ideje do istorije. Beograd:
- Overy, (ed.) (2003), History of the 20th Century. London: Times Books.
- Pavić, R. (1973) Osnove opće i regionalne političke geografije, geopolitike i geostrategije, I dio. Zagreb: Sveučilište u Zagrebu – Fakultet političkih nauka.
- Radojević, M. and Dimić, Lj. (2014) Srbija u Velikom ratu 1914-1918: kratka istorija. Beograd: Srpska književna zadruga; Beogradski forum za svet ravnopravnih,.
- Ratzel, F. (1903) Politische Geographie – oder die Geographie der Staaten, des Verkchres und des Krieges. München und Berlin: Oldenbourg.
- Ratzel, (1896) “Die Gesetze des räumlichen Wachstums der Staaten”. Petermanns Geographischen Mitteilungen, Vol. 42, № 5: 97-107.
- Ristić, LJ. (2014) Srbija u britanskoj politici 1889-1903. Beograd: Balkanološki institut SANU.
- Stepić, M. (2001) U vrtlogu balkanizacije. Beograd: JP Službeni list SRJ; Institut za geopolitičke studije.
- Stepić, M. (2012) “O srpskom geopolitičkom identitetu”. Srpska politička misao, br. 2/2012: 11-40.
- Stojanović, M. (2001) Politička geografija, geopolitika i geostrategija – uvod u geopolitičko mišljenje. Banja Luka: Matica srpska.