Izaberi jezik:
Tema broja


EU Security Policy in North Africa and in the Middle East


The EU is a major trading power in the world and formally the largest economy. Yet, its security and foreign policy have minor weight in global affairs. The EU is trying to accommodate its economic interests, partnership with the USA and the promotion of the global political and economic policies aimed at the promotion and application of good governance, respect of human rights and democratisation. Although its documents contain popular proclamations and articulated aims towards a more assertive presence in world security, it has achieved modest results in the Middle East and North Africa, where it failed to provide unified action of its member states. Instead, NATO and the Franco-British entante frugale are indirectly taking over the functionality and efficiency of EU Common Security and Defense Policy in this region.

Ključne reči:



    1. A New Response to a Changing Neighbourhood: A Review of European Neighbourhood Policy, Joint Communication to The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee Of The Regions, COM(2011) 303 Brussels, 25/05/2011.
    2. A Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean, Joint Communication To The European Council, The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions, COM(2011) 200 final, Brussels, 8.3.2011.
    3. “Council Decision 2011/210/CFSP”, Official Journal of the European Union, L 89/18 5.4.2011.
    4. “Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the Middle East”, P/08/32, Brussels, 14 March 2008, [online] Available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do ? reference=PESC/08/32&format =HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en, [accessed on: 28/03/2008].
    5. Defence cooperation, French Embassy in London, [online] Available at: http://ambafrance-uk.org/Defence-cooperation, [accessed on: 25/02/2013].
    6. “European Neighbourhood Policy – The Occupied Palestinian Territory”, MEMO/08/213, Brussels, 3 April 2008, [online] Available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do? reference=MEMO/08/213&format= HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en, [Accessed on: 28/03/2008].
    7. “European Security Strategy – A Secure Europe in a Better World”, Brussels, 12 December 2003, Internet, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf, [Accessed on: 28/03/2011.
    8. “European Parliament resolution of 10 March 2011 on the Southern Neighbourhood, and Libya in particular”, P7_TA(2010)0246, 10 March 2011, [online] Available at:http://www.europarl. europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P7-TA-2010-0246&language=EN, [Accessed on: 10/04/2011].
    9. “Frontex Joint Operation ‘Triton’ – Concerted efforts to manage migration in the Central Mediterranean”, European Commission Memo, Brussels, 7 October 2014, [online] Available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-566_en.htm, [Accessed on: 05/11/2014].
    10. “Follow-Up to theJoint Communication on a Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean, Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2010”, Brussels, 25/05/2011SEC(2011) 638, [online] Available at: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:4AfkCRl6Eu4J:ec.europa.eu/world/enp/pdf/progress2011/sec_11_638_en.pdf +European+Neighbourhood+Policy+joint+Communication+in+April.&cd=2&hl=sr&ct=clnk&source=www.google.com, , [Accessed on: 20/06/2011].
    11. “Foreign and Security Policy”, European Union:Foreign &Security Policy, [online] Available at: http://europa.eu/pol/cfsp/index_en.htm, [Accessed on: 17/06/2011].
    12. Guidelines on the eligibility of Israeli entities and their activities in the territories occupied by Israel since June 1967 for grants, prizes and financial instruments funded by the EU from 2014 onwards, (2013/C 205/05), Official Journal of the European Union C 205/9, 19.7.2013.
    13. “Joint Declaration of the Paris Summit for the Mediterranean”, Paris, 13 July 2008, [online] Available at: http://www.ue2008.fr/webdav/site/PFUE/shared/import/ 0713_declaration_de_paris/Joint_ declaration_of_the_Paris_summit_for_the_Mediterranean-EN.pdf, [Accessed on: 08/08/2008].
    14. “Libia: Rapporti paese congiunti Ambasciate/Uffici Ice estero 1^ sem. 2010”, [online] Available at: http://www.ice.gov.it/paesi/pdf/libia.pdf, [Accessed on: 14/05/2011].
    15. Mare Nostrum, Marina Difesa, [online] Available at: http://www.marina.difesa.it/attivita/ operativa/Pagine/Mare Nostrum.aspx, [Accessed on: 12/11/2014].
    16. “Meeting of EU Chiefs of Defence”, Consilium EU, [online] Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/showPage.aspx?id=261〈=en, [Accessed on: 20/05/2011].
    17. “Mediterranean Solar Plan”, 19/01/2012, [online] Available at: http://ufmsecretariat.org/mediterranean-solar-plan/#, [Accessed on: 26/07/2013].
    18. Palestine Papers, January 2011.
    19. “Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy – Providing Security in a Changing World –”, S407/08 Brussels, 11 December 2008.
    20. “The EU and the Middle East PeaceProcess”, European Union Еxternal Action Service, [online] Available at: http://www.eeas.europa.eu/mepp/index_en.htm, [Accessed on: 19/06/2011].
    21. “The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership”, Euromed, [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations /euromed/index_en.htm, [Accessed on: 15/03/2009].
    22. “Treaty of Lisbon Amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community.”
    23. “Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and theFrench Republic for Defence and Security Co-operation”, London, Cm 7976 02 November 2010.
    24. “Tripoli Declaration”, Tripoli, 30 November 2010, [online] Available at:http://www.africa-eu-partnership.org/sites/default/files/doc_tripoli_declaration_en.pdf, [Accessed on: 28/03/2011].

    Books and articles

    1. ALDE – Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, “Verhofstadt congratulates Mahmoud Gebril on being nominated as Prime Minister of the Libyan Interim Government”, 24 Mar 2011, [online] Available at: http://pr.euractiv.com/press-release/verhofstadt-congratulates-mahmoud-gebril-being-nominated-prime-minister-libyan-interim, [Accessed on: 03/04/2011].
    2. Álvarez, I. – Alvariño, O. (December 2004), “The European Strategy for the Middle East”, Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series, 4 No. 19, pp. 12.
    3. “Arab Peninsula, Iraq and Iran”, [online] Available at: http://www.europarl. europa.eu/aboutparliament/en/displayFtu.html ?ftuId=FTU_6.4.6.html, [Accessed on: 29/07/2013].
    4. Archer, T, Behr, T, and Nieminen, T. (eds.) (2010), “Why the EU fails: Learning from past experiences to succeed better next time, Helsinki, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, , (FIIA Report No. 23/2010), [online] Available at: http://www.fiia.fi/en/publication/131, [Accessed on: 12/02/2012].
    5. “Almagor to sue NATO over Serbia”, Jewish Post, [online] Available at:  http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1239710862408 &pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull, [Accessed on: 06/05/2009].
    6. “Bilateral agreements: Iraq”, [online] Available at: http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/iraq/eu_iraq/ political_relations/agreements/index_en.htm, [Accessed on:  29/07/2013].
    7. Bulut Aymat, E. (ed.) (December 2010), European involvement in the Arab/Israeli conflict, Chailot papers.
    8. Chafer, T. аnd Cumming,G. (2010), “Beyond Fashoda: Anglo-French securitycooperationin Africa since Saint-Malo”, International Affairs 86: 5 1129–1147.
    9. Conley, A, Dukkipati, U, (2011) „Leading from the front –Europe and New Libya“, [online] Available at: http://csis.org/ publication/leading-front-europe-and-new-libya, [Accessed on: 02/02/2012].
    10. Cowell, A.and  Somaiya, ( 2011), “France and Italy Will Also Send Advisers to Libya Rebels”, April 20, 2011[online] Available at:   http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/21/world/africa/21libya. html?_r=1&pagewanted=all, [Accessed on: 24/11/2011].
    11. Dabbs Sciubba, J. (2008), “The Defense Implications of Demographic Trends”, Joint Force Quarterly Issue 48, 1st quarter 2008.
    12. Dagci, K. ( 2007), “The EU’s Middle East Policy and Its Implications to the Region ”, Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 6, No.1&2, Spring & Summer.
    13. “Dayton’s mission: A reader’s guide”, (2011) The Palestine Papers, Al Jazeera 25 Jan, [online] Available at: http://english.aljazeera.net/palestinepapers/2011/01/2011125145732219555.html, [Accessed on: 19/02/2011].
    14. Defence Correspondent, (2011), “SAS ‘Smash’ squads on the ground in Libya to mark targets for coalition jets”, [online] Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1368247/Libya-SAS-smash-squads-ground-mark-targets-coalition-jets.html, [Accessed on: 24/04/2011].
    15. Dursun-Ozkanca O. and Mazzucelli C. (2011), “Veto Players Inside and Out: The Future of EU-NATO Security Relations as Explained in a Comparative Foreign Policy Analysis of French and Turkish Grand Strategies”, Paper prepared for delivery at the 5th Annual Research Conference of the EU Centre of Excellence (EUCE), 10-12 April, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2011.
    16. “Egypt ‘aids Libyan rebels against Gadhafi’”, UPI, [online] Available at: http://www.upi.com/ Top_News/Special/2011/03/09/Egypt-aids-Libyan-rebels-against-Gadhafi/UPI-42161299696518/, [Accessed on: 24/11/2011].
    17. Elwarfally, G. (2011), “What the Libyan Resistance Needs”, The New York Times May 12, [online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/13/opinion/13elwarfally.html, [Accessed on: 19/05/2011].
    18. “ЕU Mission Arrives at Tripoli”, European Union, [online] Available at: http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/libya-conflict.bxt/, [Accessed on:09.2011].
    19. “EU offers to reform Libyan Security Forces“, EUbusiness, [online] Available at: http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/libya-conflict-aid.bxy/ [Accessed on : 09.2011].
    20. Fargues, Philipe, “Emerging Demographic Patterns accross the Mediterranean and their Implications for Migration through 2030”, Transatlantic Council on Migration, The Migration Policy Institute, November 2008.
    21. Fischer, S, Lannon E. (May 2011), “The ENP Strategic Review: the EU and its neighbourhood at a crossroads”, European Union Institute for Security Studies, ISS Analysis.
    22. Gilles, A., Bertram C.and Grant C, (2001) “Europe’smilitaryrevolution”, Defenceinsides, The Centre for European Reform 14/2/01.
    23. Gomis B. (2013) “France-UK Defence Cooperation and Mali”, Chatham House 31 January.
    24. Grevi, G, Hellyand Keohane, D. (2009), European Security and Defence Policy – The First 10 Years, EU Institute for European Studies, Paris 2009, pp. 448.
    25. Homan, K. (2007), “Operation Artemis in the Democratic Republic Of Congo”, in EC, Faster and more united?, 2007, 151-155, [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations /ifs/publications/book_1_en.htm . 21, [Accessed on: 15/07/2013].
    26. Huber, D. (and all), “The Mediterranean Region in a Multipolar World: Evolving Relations with Russia, China, India, and Brazil”, Mediterranean Paper Series, February 2013, The German Marshall Fund of the United States and The Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI), p. 11.
    27. Hughes, C. (2011), “Britain’s Secret War in Libya: British Special Forces uncovered on the ground”, Mirror 1/06/2011, [online] Available at: http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2011/06/01/britain-s-secret-war-in-libya-british-special-forces-uncovered-on-the-ground-115875-23170485/#ixzz1eczmq61e, [Accessed on: 24/11/2011].
    28. Janković, S. (2010), Contemporary migration trends: Consequences for Serbia, National Interest N. 2, year VI, vol. 8, Belgrade (Јанковић, Слободан, „Савремени миграциони трендови: последице по Србију”, Национални интерес, бр. 2, год. VI, vol. 8, Београд).
    29. Janković, S. (2008) „MiddleEastBeforeandAfterAnnapolis”, in: drNevenkaJeftić (ed), Aktuelna pitanja međunarodnih odnosa, Institut za međunarodnu politiku i privredu, Beograd, pp. 349-377.
    30. Jones, B, “Franco-British military cooperation:a new engine for European defence?”, Occasional Paper, European Union Institute for Security Studies, February 2011, Vol. 88.
    31. Jović-Lazić A. and Lađevac I. (2008), “Izgradnja bezbednosne strukture Evropske unije i NATO”, in: Aktuelni međunarodni odnosi u međunarodnim oblastima: bezbednosti, ekonomije, prava, religije.
    32. Kadhafi impose sa loi grâce au fric”, Courrier International03.2011, [online] Available at: http://www. courrierinternational.com/article/2011/03/08/kadhafi-impose-sa-loi-grace-au-fric, [Accessed on: 18/05/2011].
    33. Keohane, D. (2010/2011), “The EU and NATO’s future”, in: EU Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP newsletter, Issue 11, Winter, pp. 26-27.
    34. Kirişci K. (2012), “The EU, Turkey, Arab Spring: Challenges and Opportunities for Regional Integration”, Global Turkey in Europe, Working Paper 01, Istituto Affari Internazionali, Rome.
    35. Ledwith, (2011), “Cables show Libya pressed oil firms to reimburse terror costs”, Reuters Feb 23, 2011, [online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/23/us-gaddafi-oilcompanies-wikileaks-idUSTRE71M5Y420110223, [Accessed on: 27/02/2011].
    36. “Malmström: ‘We’ll never have a Mare Nostrum unless member states decide to finance it’”, Malta Today 5 November 2014, [online] Available at: http://www.maltatoday.com.mt/comment/ blogs/45824/well_never_have_a_mare _nostrum_unless_member _states_decide_to _finance_it#.VHx3mjHF-So, [Accessed on: 07/11/2014].
    37. Moran, D. (2008) “Hamas wins this round” ISN Security Watch 25/01/08, [online] Available at: http://www.isn.ethz .ch/news/sw/details.cfm?ID=18566, [Accessed on:  25/01/08].
    38. Munin, N. (2014), “EU Guidelines Regarding Activities by Israel in the Occupied Territories: A Diplomatic Achievement or a Pyrrhic Victory?”, UACES 44th Annual Conference Cork, 1-3 September.
    39. O’Donnell, M. (2011), “Britain and France should not give up on EU defence co-operation”, The Centre for European Reform, 24 October 2011, pp. 6.
    40. Olivier, G. (March 2011), “From Colonialism to Partnership in African-European Relations”, The International Spectator, Vol. 46, Istituto Affari Internazionali, Rome, pp. 53-67.
    41. Patterson, R. (2013), “EU SanctionS on Iran: The European political context”, Middle East Policy, XX, No. 1, Spring, pp. 135-146.
    42. Rettman, A. (2012), “Five EU countries call for new military ‘structure’”, Euobserver, [online] Available at: http://euobserver.com/defence/118226, [Accessed on: 25/02/2013].
    43. Schoeman, M. (March 2011), “Of BRICs and Mortar: The Growing Relations between Africa and the Global South”, The International Spectator, Vol. 46, No. 1, , Istituto Affari Internazionali, Rome, pp. 33-51.
    44. Siemes, T. (2009), “Mare nostrum? L’Union Europénne et L’Union pour la Méditerranée”, Documents, Revue du dialogue franco-allemand, 2/09.
    45. Starr, B. (2011), “Foreign forces in Libya helping rebel forces advance”, CNN August 24, 2011, Internet, http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/08/24/libya.foreign.forces/, retreived on: 24/11/2011.
    46. “The British Military Contribution to Operations in Mali: Is This Mission Creep?”, Rusi org, [online] Available at: http://www.rusi.org/analysis/commentary/ref:C51093FC497623 /#.Ust xE6VOSSq, [Accessed on: 25/02/2013].
    47. “The Daedalus European Security: The Interactions of NATO, EU, WEU”, (2001) [online] Available at: http://www.nato.int/acad/fellow/98-00/hatjiadoniu.pdf, [Accessed on:  18/05/2011].
    48. “UK, France agree on more military co-operation”, Reuters Jul 25, 2012 , [online] Available at:  http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/07/25/uk-france-britain-idUKBRE86O02920120725, [Accessed on:  24/10/2012].
    49. “UK urges pressure on Gaddafi, EU weighs intervention”, [online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/ 24/us-libya-britain-idUSTRE71N6M920110224, [Accessed on:  13/03/2011].
    50. “Van Rompuy leads EU’s go-ahead to military intervention in Libya – Nigel Farage”, [online] Availableat: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2JZwFhwsqQ, [Accessed on: 25/04/2011].
    51. Youngs, R. and Echagüe, (March 2011), “Europe, the Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Need for Triangulation”, The International Spectator, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 27-39.


PERIODIKA Serbian Political Thought 1/2015 UDC 327+355.02(4-672EU):32(55/56+61) 39-69