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BEZBEDNOSNE PRETNJE I IZAZOVI KLIMATSKIH PROMENA: HEURISTIČKA ULOGA NOOSFERE U SHVATANJU SAVREMENE BEZBEDNOSTI

Sažetak

Klimatske promene se zbog bezbednosnih implikacija nameću kao ključna tema međunarodnih odnosa u 21. veku. Realnost klimatskih promena nastala je antropogenom emisijom štetnih gasova u atmosferi. Neublažene klimatske promene preko 2 stepena Celzijusa iznad predindustrijskog nivoa vodiće ka nestabilnim bezbednosnim situacijama. Za dostizanje bezbednosti od pretnji klimatskih promena nužna je adekvatna kaonceptualizacija. U radu ćemo pokušati da ispitamo zašto sadašnja konceptualizacija bezbednosti ne odgovara realnosti pretnji klimatskih promena. Konceptualna pretpostavka rasta ekonomske snage kao temelja bezbednosti koja se unapređuje jačanjem energetske bezbednosti kroz uvećanje globalnog pristupa energentima koji emituju štetne gasove upravo doprinosi neprekidnom menjanju sastava globalne atmosfere. Konceptualizacija bezbednosti kao očuvanje „načina života“ ili moderne političke ekonomije očigledno ne omogućava dostizanje bezbednosti od pretnji klimatskih promena i time ne odgovara realnosti. Heurističku ulogu u shvatanju savremene bezbednosti ima paradigma noosfera. Ona naglašava da kada duhovne vrednosti i shvatanja čovečanstva postoje u harmoniji sa životnom sredinom, nastaće glavni kriterijum nacionalnog i ličnog bogatstva (sigurnost). Noosfera ukazuje da je pretpostavka ugljeničko-industrijske demokratije kao osnove globalne bezbednosti pogrešna premisa na kojoj se gradi savremeni bezbednosni poredak. Životna sredina je najvažnija komponenta savremene bezbednosti. Noosfera je važna za savremeno shvatanje bezbednosti jer utvrđuje da je način za dostizanje bezbednosti odricanje tehnološkog imperativa eksploatacije prirodnih resursa i transformacija ekonomije zasnovane na fosilnim gorivima.

Ključne reči:

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PERIODIKA Politička revija 2/2015 УДК 551.583+502.131.1]:355.02 (100) 145-163
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