Faculty of Political Science, University of Belgrade
European Union’s Common Security and Defence Policy Operations in the Mediterranean: Missions Impossible
Arab Spring, Libyan crisis and subsequent explosion of migration created ‘perfect storm’ for the European Union (EU), challenging the EU as security actor. This research apply Christopher Hill’s capability-expectations gap concept on the CSDP, more specifically to the EU’s response to the crisis in the Mediterranean, focusing on two aspects. One is the (in)capacity to reach a collective decision, as demonstrated in the EU’s response to Libyan crisis 2011. Second aspect is related to the ambitions of the EU’s crisis management, focusing on high expectations raised by the EU itself by defining overambitious and unrealistic mandates for three CSDP missions in the Mediterranean: EUFOR Lybia, EUBAM Lybia and EUNAVFOR MED. The main thesis of this article is that the EU’s actions as security actor in the Mediterranean represents a major setback for the CSDP, leading to the disillusion when it comes to the EU’s capabilities of providing security in its own neighborhood.
In the Bermuda Triangle? The European Union’s Enlargement Policy, Common Foreign and Security Policy and Unfinished States in the Western Balkans
Twenty years of the European Union’s (EU) action as a strategic actor in the process of political and economic reforms of former communist countries has created enough experience based on which it is possible to thoroughly analyse the influence that the European integration has had on the success of transformation of these countries. In a self-imposing comparison, the process of European integration of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) countries can be evaluated as much more successful than it is the case with the Western Balkan countries. Such course of events can only be explained by an overall consideration of all the factors having a decisive influence on the relationship between the EU and the Western Balkan countries. This paper implies that the concept of Europeanization based on the external incentive is not enough to explain such a course of the European integration process of the Western Balkan countries. Another important factor is the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) action that contributed not only to the spreading of phenomenon of unfinished countries in the Western Balkans but also to the decreased efficiency of the instruments of enlargement policy itself.